Music of the Spheres: A Case for A=432Hz

Music tuned to A=432Hz/C=256Hz harmonizes with the speed of light, the human light body, the Earth’s rotation, the size and movement of other celestial bodies and Tiger Woods’ golf ball.


A couple years ago I didn’t give a second thought about using or not using the standard tuning pitch, A=440Hz, for sound healing. Why would it matter? Sound is sound, right?

As it turns out, the tuning pitch A=432Hz is much more effective than A=440Hz for healing and meditation. And by happy coincidence, it is also the basis for the philosophers’ Music of the Spheres — the motion and dimensions of the sun, the Earth, the moon, Saturn and Tiger Woods’ golf ball.

Mark's tuning forks

Tuning to A=440Hz is an arbitrary standard with no musical or scientific basis.

Music tuned to A432/C256 harmonizes with the speed of light, the human light body, the Earth’s rotation and the size and movement of other celestial bodies. It also has a mathematical basis and a long tradition of use in classical music extending into the 1950s. It’s also used in medical diagnosis.

My personal experience is that music tuned to A432 is relaxing and soothing compared to A440 music, which is exciting but harsh.

I became aware of using A=432Hz as a reference pitch for tuning my harp through the videos of Jamie Buturff (see “Sources” at the end of this article), which piqued my interest so I gave it a try.

Tuning my harp to A432, I led a live harp meditation with my regular group without hinting that something had changed. The resulting “Wow” convinced me that using A432 as a tuning reference is not just a great idea, but essential for healing and meditation music. And after some research, I learned that tuning to 432Hz to 435Hz has quite a tradition and history, and that the current reference pitch, A440, turns out to be an arbitrary standard with no musical or scientific basis.

What’s a reference pitch?

To explain, the “reference pitch” is what musicians use to tune their instruments and to tune to each other. So the pitch A above middle C is tuned to the frequency 432Hz. (“Hz” means cycles or vibrations per second and is pronounced “hertz.”) The other notes are tuned relative to the reference pitch, also called the tuning pitch or concert pitch. In history, the pitch C was also used as a reference, and its pitch relative to A432 is 256Hz.

A strong tradition

Sign up for Mark's email list.Before the A440 standard, tuning pitches varied but there was a strong preference in Europe for a reference pitch in the range of A432 to A435, with A435 being used as recently as the 1950s by the New York Metropolitan Opera.

Joseph Sauveur (1653-1716), a contemporary of Bach and considered the father of musical acoustics, defined middle C as 256Hz. The leading acoustician in Beethoven’s time was Ernst Chladni (1756-1827), whose textbook on music theory explicitly defined C as 256Hz, the “scientific” tuning. Classical composer Giacomo Rossini (1792-1868) complained about higher tunings then prevalent in Italy saying, “We call A in Rome, what is B-flat in Paris.” The “French” A at that time was, by law, 435Hz, but in Italy it varied from A442 to A450.

A440 was slowly adopted as an international standard between 1955 and 1975, after being proposed by Germany in 1939.

432 is the frequency of light

The magic lies in the speed of light, the human light body and the math. It turns out that 432 squared —186,624 — is within 1 percent of the speed of light, currently measured as 186,282 miles per second. The square root of the measured speed of light is 431.6.

Notes tuned relative to A432 harmonize directly with the light body allowing the vibrations to penetrate, and through entrainment, bring your energetic essence into balance. Entrainment is the tendency for a strong vibration to influence a weaker vibration.

So the strong 432Hz resonance brings an unbalanced light body into resonance with true light. Energy healing modalities such as Reiki use the same principle. Using A440 as a reference has no energetic benefit that I am aware of, and may actually be an unbalancing force.

In April 2011 a study, “Effects of Life Wave Music on Human Biofield,” by the Center for Biofield Sciences in India was commissioned to study the effects of sounds based on the A432 tuning. The results indicate that A432 has positive effects on the human body and emotions, including:

  • Reduced stress levels
  • Fewer lower backache complaints
  • Less depression
  • Fewer muscle spasms
  • Less chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Reduced blood pressure
  • Reduced insomnia
  • Better concentration
Music of the Spheres

Saturn goes through the precession of the equinoxes in 864 of its years: 432 x 2.

Music of the Spheres

Ancient philosophy refers to the “Music of the Spheres,” and Pythagoras taught that music should be based on C256. In his day music was for healing and praising the Creator and not a delivery system for entertainment.

Mathematically, C256 is associated with the number 2 — 256 is 2 raised to the eighth power: 28, or 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2=256. This is where Pythagorean pitch comes from, using 2 as the basis, and using the pitch C as a reference instead of A.

[Update, March 7, 2013: I want to clarify that I am not advocating “Pythagorean tuning” for music, as it simply doesn’t work. I’m stating that Pythagoras advocated tuning to C256 as a standard tuning pitch, but the Pythagorean formula of tuning other pitches of the scale to pure fifths is a different topic. Please reference, see my blog post, “Tuning vs. Temperament” for more details.]

In the magic of musical physics, doubling the frequency of a pitch gives you the same pitch an octave higher, and conversely, cutting the frequency in half yields the same pitch an octave lower. So, Using 256Hz as the reference for C, all occurrences of C are a power of 2.


Frequency in Hz (cycles per second)

Power of 2

C – 3 octaves higher



C – 2 octaves higher



C – 1 octave higher



Middle C



C – 1 octave lower



C – 2 octaves lower



C – 3 octaves lower



Working through the math, it turns out that the Earth’s “pitch” as it rotates is G, a fourth below the theoretical C that lies 24 octaves below middle C, when C=256Hz. So C256/A432 is in tune with the Earth’s rotation. (See “The math,” below, to go through the computations.)

Other interesting coincidences with 432 include:

  • The diameter of the sun is 864,000 miles: 432 x 2 = 864
  • The diameter of the moon is 2160 miles: 432 x 5 = 2160
  • Saturn orbits the precession of the equinoxes over 864 of its years: 432 x 2 = 864
  • The precession of the equinoxes is 25,920 years: 432 x 60 = 25,920
  • Divide the precession of the equinoxes by 12 (25,920 / 12 = 2160), and you get the length of an astrological age: 2160 years: 432 x 5 = 2160
  • The Ancient Indian time periods, Yugas, are in increments of 432 and added together are 4.32 million years. The current Yuga, Kali Yuga, is 432,000 years.
  • There are 432 Buddha statues at Mt. Meru, India
  • Tiger Woods uses a golf ball with 432 dimples to reduce drag.

So, A432 really is the pitch basis for the Music of the Spheres. When you tune to A432, you’re in tune with the universe and Tiger Woods’ golf ball.

Random facts

Giuseppe Verdi

Verdi wrote the vocal parts for his operas assuming A=432Hz.

I could go on but I want to keep this blog short. Here are some other interesting facts about tuning to A432/C256:

  • Singing to A432 is much easier and healthier, and Verdi insisted on A432 for his operas, and wrote the vocal parts assuming the bel canto vocal break at F#. At A440, the break is at F, which is awkward for singing.
  • In October 1953, a referendum of 23,000 French musicians voted overwhelmingly in favor of A=432Hz in the face of Germany and Britain pushing an A=440Hz standard.
  • A “C” tuning fork is recommended as a way to detect bone fractures without an X-ray. Specifically, 128Hz, which is one octave below middle C tuned to 256hz.
  • Tuning forks used to detect hearing loss are tuned at 512Hz and 1024Hz, two and three octaves above middle C tuned to 256hz. I could write a whole article on how C256 is vibrationally compatible with the structure of the ear. Maybe some other time.
  • Rudolf Steiner warned that using “Luciferian” brightness and tones in music could bring a condensing of greed forces in the West, as opposed to A432/C256, which he compared to the Christ consciousness of ascendant energy.


My conclusion is that music tuned to A432 is healing because of its resonance with light, and I propose that all music be performed using the A432 pitch. (Unless, of course, your intention is to be harsh on purpose.)

Try it at home!

Right now! Compare Sample One, below, which is tuned to A440, and Sample Two, which is tuned to A432 and see if you can feel a difference. Use the comments section, below, to let me know what you think. (Headphones are highly recommended.)

Sample of harp meditation music @ A=440Hz

Sample of harp meditation music @  A=432Hz

The math

How to compute that the G 24 octaves below middle C is the same frequency in Hz as the rotation of Earth, assuming C=256Hz/A=432Hz.

Earth and moon

Earth’s rotational frequency is a G when using A432/C256 as the standard pitch.

Compute Earth’s rotation in Hz:

  • Earth rotates once every 24 hours, which also equals 1,440 minutes (24×60=1440) or 86,400 seconds (1440×60=86,400). So Earth’s rotational “frequency” is 1/86,400 cycles per second. Dividing 1 by 86,400 yields 0.0000115.
  • So the frequency of Earth’s rotation is 0.0000115Hz

Now, compute G 24 octaves below middle C:

  • Halve 256Hz 24 times, which equals 0.0000152Hz
  • G is a fourth below that. Using the Pythagorean ratio of 3:4 for an interval of a fourth, multiply 0.0000152Hz by three (0.0000152 x 3 = 0.0000456) and divide that result by 4 to get 0.0000114Hz, the pitch of G 24 octaves below middle C — C256. (0.0000456/4=0.0000114).
  • Or cut 256Hz in half 25 times (0.0000076Hz) and compute the G above that, which is an interval of a fifth, computed by Pythagoras as 2:3. That’s 0.0000076×3 = 0.0000228, divided by 2 equals 0.0000114Hz.


Korg CA40 electronic tuner that accommodates A=432Hz

256Hz and 432Hz tuning Forks


The Cosmic 432, Part One by Jamie Buturff

Jamie Buturff describes his chakra tones and why they work

Tuning fork test utilization in detection of fractures: a review of the literature

A Brief History of Tuning

Chart of Human Vocal Registers

Interview with operatic tenor Carlo Bergonzi

The Foundations of Scientific Musical Tuning

Concert pitch on Wikipedia

“Effects of Life Wave Music on Human Biofield,” by the Center for Biofield Sciences, India

43 thoughts on “Music of the Spheres: A Case for A=432Hz

  1. Hi Mark,

    I can definitely feel the difference in the 432 recording. It feels great. Warm on the back. Thanks for sharing this interesting and important information – and also for your nice music.

    All good wishes, Natalia Mann

    • Thank you, Natalia. I really appreciate feedback. My Reiki practitioner fiancee says that warming of the back indicates that you are pretty balanced, that the energy is flowing nicely throughout your chakras. That is, the energy is flowing freely through your spine. And thanks also for your kind compliment :-)

  2. Hi Mark, Please add our page to your list of Sources. Our online store is and anyone can order best quality aluminum tuning forks (2 pronged, naturally vibrating) at 256 Hz, 432 Hz or any Hz. There are also other educational items and accessories, and classical music articles about and videos of performances at the Verdi Tuning. Thank you for the blog.

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  4. Sample which is tuned to A432 sounds with great harmony, clearing and faultlessness. Sample one (A440) seems to have more false sound, lower then needed…

  5. Music tuned to A=432 has a special warmth to it and seems to help me relax much more deeply. As a trained musician, A=440 feels more ‘normal’ to my ears and I tend to naturally gravitate toward it while singing a cappella, probably out of habit or some form of muscle memory. However, A=432 just seems “right”. I would love to know how to tune my synths to 432 and record everything relative to that frequency.

    • Yep. When I tune down think, “Wow that’s flat!” But I “warm” up to it pretty fast. Then when I have to tune back up for a gig, it sort of hurts. And at one time I could to A440 by ear and I really don’t have perfect pitch. We and everyone else have been conditioned.

  6. I Strummed a Standard Tuned Guitar compared to a Guitar Tunned to the 432hz Side by side and just off that test alone i found out that the 432Hz tuned Guitar was more Harmonic, i am a sound engineer as well so i can hear these sort of things i also have pure tones on my youtube channel VSArts209.
    Thanks Jamie

  7. I listened to the A=432 piece. Aside from being incredibly beautiful, I noticed at about the 4 minute mark that I could literally FEEL it in my cells…almost like a reverberation from inside the nucleus of each cell bounding back out. I’m not sure why it happened at that point but I definitely noticed it starting there. Thank you so much for the blog post and for sharing more information about the healing power of sound.
    If you happen to know of some reason for the change at 4 minutes, I’d be very interested. Thank you again!

    • Thanks so much for your feedback, Julie. I cannot point to a specific cause for your experience. However, I would speculate an explanation: According to esoteric physics, the center of an atom is hollow and contains only Light from the Source. Of course, conventional physics says the nucleus of an atom is dense matter, but I haven’t travelled there myself. Assuming that the nucleus of each atom is Light from the Source or Creator, you may have experienced an expansion of Light. This is actually a great way to facilitate Ascension, and is described by St. Germain in his I AM book series. Interestingly, I had just started the first three books of the series when I recorded this meditation and was working on being aware of Light at that level and expanding it in meditation. He also suggests meditation where you surround yourself in Light, and I just happen to be working on a guided meditation inspired by that teaching. As I mention in the blog, the point of tuning to the 432hz/256Hz frequency is to resonate with Light. The LIght can also work from the outside in. The music balances your light body, to which your physical body must adjust accordingly, If there is an imbalance or blockage, it can be physically or energetically released (from the inside out), and you will feel that. So, there’s a lot of Light to work with! I’m so happy you found this useful. Please share it.

  8. hi mark. firstly you are indeed a master of your art. your ability in subtle inflection deliverance is beautiful. secondly 432 hz is clearly more effective in its connection with the soul! what i personally experienced was a connected resonance from the sub harmonics which simply was not present with 440hz. coming into contact with your article and experimental demonstration as come at a timely juncture for myself as i am on the fringe of a collaborated effort with a church organist to tune certain pipes at differing frequencies albeit 432 hz being the one of interest to myself as i believe that this frequency is instrumental in conscience evolution. i have an intuitive theory and when funds permit ( why is money allowed to hold us back!) i intend to purchase certain equipment as to validate the importance of this frequency on biological functioning. i would like to relay my appreciation as to your efforts as to spiritually evolve all those that you touch upon. positives of intention. james

    • James, thanks for sharing your thoughts and ideas. Organ tuning is quite a project! I hope that works out for you. And yes, more research on the benefits of 432Hz would be beneficial. When science and spirituality agree, you have a very powerful concept. Thanks also for your encouragement. I really appreciate it.

  9. Hi Mark,
    You are doing a great job indeed. Came across your work recently and started tuning recordings of mine to 432. It makes quite a difference. Since i am a music producer and sound engineer, i can see the difference clearly. I am working on a new age project based on different energy forms in Indian culture and hope to see some interesting difference in it.


    Check out the above link for an article I wrote last year about how A432 is common sense from a horological standpoint, matching meter and tempo standards, and the way in which 5-Limit Tuning is the perfect style in which to be playing as such. I have submitted an article with slightly more esoteric historical reference material to an academic journal, with an editorial review reply coming in the next few months. Hopefully I can help bring about the shift!

  11. Hello – for the sake of mother earth and the health of her childrens,
    please pass on this Petition – save 432 hz pitch frequency – thanks a lot!
    Namste Claudia

    in english

    in italian

    in french

    in german

  12. Please write to me! I am a fellow harpist who also is now using the 432hz as of
    three months ago. I couldn’t stand the 440hz……….and went searching for a different frequency to tune my Daphne pedal harp. Now all my harps are in sync
    with one another. Vive la difference!!!! I have to tell my my story on the phone, so please write soon! So glad you are doing this. I will send your site out. It’s got it all!
    Thanks again,

  13. A=432, the general concept, has been around for a long time. So after playing acoustic guitar for 34 years and hearing NOTHING on this subject until recently, my initial response was “why have I not hear about this before?”. Not that I am completely sold on the idea of switching from 440 to 432 although my gut is leaning to 432 at least for most material. I have read numerous articles on this subject and discussed at length with friends. I will not be an expert, but my opinion may matter. I knew the ultimate test was to tune my guitar to A=432 and see what i thought. To hear 432 “live” with no one in the room. To help illustrate how I view sound, when I pick up an acoustic guitar, the make and model is completely irrelevant. I have played hundreds of poor sounding name models retailing for $2,000. Conversely I have played really nice sounding good (not great) guitars, ranging from $90 to $500. The ONLY thing that matters is what it sounds like…. and somewhat the playability. So for me, the only thing that matters is whether 432 sounds better, yes or no. Scientific reasoning, math, conspiracy theories, organizations that oppose or reject, whether it is easier on someone’s voice, while very interesting, does not matter to me. Okay so the math is interesting. Emphatically I can tell you that an E chord in 432 has greater sustain, is louder, less harsh, the strings vibrate more intensely and the sound appears more rich in texture. Tune your acoustic low E (6th string) down to a C and play it through a quality acoustic amp loud. Then switch this C to 440. Big difference.The 432 C has tremendous power and command, the 440 C is fairly lifeless in comparison. I happen to play a Martin rosewood circa 2001 through an SVR Cali Blonde amp. This rig sounds sweet in 440, but sounds sweeter in 432. Still intensely studying this subject and plan to make a difference in the music world if 432 holds my attention. Mark, thank you for this well written article!

  14. I was recently reminded of the 432hz frequency, which I had heard of before. This time it really grabbed me. It resonates for me in the same way as the Mayan calendar resonates vs. our currently used Gregorian calendar. Same principle: it is more in harmony with our true nature on all levels. All information I find, including your blog, fits in perfectly and synchronistically.
    I play the harp. I figured out that with my Snark tuner that has a pitch calculator, I am able to retune my harp. My question to you is: what is your experience when you retune a harp? Does it hold? Does it create stress on the instrument? I know all harps are currently made with 440hz. Should I expect complications, in case I want to reset it to 440hz because I want to play with others? At this moment it is my only harp, with possibly another coming in soon. Would you recommend to retune only one of your harps, and leave others at 440hz?
    I would appreciate some practical advice from an experienced harpist. Thanks!

    • The instrument should be able to hand retuning. Whether or not it will hold a tune depends on how the neck is constructed. Swanson and Salvi harps should hold the tuning well. Other harps, not so well. It usually takes about 24 hours for the harp to adjust and stay in tune at 432 or 440. This is just my experience. If you can have one harp at 432 and another at 440, that’s probably the best approach.

  15. Thankyou Mark
    Of all the info I have seen on 432Hz (and there seems to be an increasing amount of it!), yours is by far the most comprehensive and easy to understand. Most noticably, I sense a genuine humility regarding your wish to share this amazing knowledge.
    I am currently recording a sound healing composition and other musical pieces, using crystal bowls in 432Hz, and I am studying the tuning as part of my MSc. Your website has been most useful and I will credit you for any references used. Mahalo and bright blessings

  16. Hi Mark,

    I’ve just heard your harp meditation music in 432 on soundcloud and I feel such a bliss in my heart and also have the feeling that my bioenergy field expanded. I would like to purchase some mp3 from you in 432hz. Please advise how this can be done. Thank you in advance.

    Love and light,


  17. As much as I love the idea for singing ( as concert pitch in the time of early music was a 1/2 tone down and should be played as such ) but for playing the harp as a professional it is impractical unless you have the funds to have 2 concert harps and keep one tuned down to 432. I am a professional harpist with 37 years of experience, alternating and putting my harp down to 432 would cause havoc in pitching, which I hear in the recording, as some notes are slightly out of tune which cause dissonance thus not full healing qualities. The harp likes to sit at a constant pitch, the instrument gets used to it, retuning up to 440 to work with other instruments that are fixed and other instrumentalists who’s instruments are played at 440 would cause problems. An interesting story here , my concert harp which I have had for 18 years, a Venus classic always wanted to sit at 442 from the beginning, I fought to keep it at 440 but gave up, it wanted to sit high and so I have left it this way for the past 10 years. My singing teacher who is an expert in
    Hz technology said 442 is good too. I leave my harp at 442 where it naturally wants to sit. I have a brighter sound that can cut through external sounds when I play at functions. For healing I think it would be alright too. Problem solved if you have an extra harp to tune to 432.

    • Thank you, Mehlinda, for relating your personal experience with harp tuning. What you are perceiving as notes being out of tune in my recording may be that the harp is tuned to quarter comma meantone temperament to make the thirds smoother. Although I’m not exactly sure which recording you’re referring to.

  18. Mark, while I don’t dispute the benefits of tuning to A432, to claim that it is harmonious to the speed of light is arbitrary. What is a mile and how does it relate to Hz? Most of the world uses kilometers which is based off the circumference of the earth. The speed of light in km/s is roughly 299,792. Nautical miles is also based off the circumference of the earth and is 1.15 “regular” miles. The speed of light in nautical miles/s is roughly 161,984. So while 432 might be harmonious with the body in certain ways, to claim 432 squared is the same as the speed of light just doesn’t hold any weight.

    • Hi Matt. Thanks for commenting. You make some good observations. I was also concerned about relating the speed of light to 432Hz and did a bit of research to see if the measurement of a mile has some sort of “organic” basis or is arbitrary, and also if the measure of the speed of light is different in a dense medium like the Earth’s atmosphere than in space. My point is that 432Hz is harmonious with the light body. I can’t really prove it but in my own experience in sound healing, I can say that there is a dramatic difference between healing at 440Hz and 432Hz, and I’m wondering why. It’s an interesting coincidence, at the least, that 432 squared is within 1 percent of the speed of light measured in statute miles.

  19. Great article!!

    I am a sound healer/musician. At one point I recorded many meditation songs in A=440hz until I became aware of 432hz and started using 432hz based on the overall harmonics and natural sounding.

    Now, my main question is this: I am currently making a Chakra album. It’s been known that each Chakra resonates with each note, starting from the root up to the crown (C,D,E,F,G,A,B). Yet I have also heard that is not the case with A=432hz:

    Crown 216,432, or 864 – A
    3rd Eye 144, 288, or 576 – D
    Throat 192,384, or 768 – G
    Heart 128,256, or 512 – C
    Solar Plexus 182,364, or 728 – F#
    Sacral 303,606, or 1212 – E flat
    Root 228,456, or 912 – B flat

    I’m very confused about this all. I mean of course it always comes down to intention and if our intention is to heal then that is what will be infused into the music. But considering Chakras are very vital to ascension and have been so for thousands of years I want to make sure my Chakras album is correct with each Chakras sound. Do you have any advice/info on this?

    Thank you!

    • My understanding is that these chakra pitches only work in 432Hz, and that they come from the pitches that Tibetan singing bowls are tuned to, which are based on A=432Hz/C=256Hz. My personal experience is that playing in the key of C resonates with the heart chakra and that Bb resonates with the root chakra. So for healing music I tend to stick to these keys. I’ve also found that the key of F resonates with the third eye. I hvaen’t experimented much with other keys. So I think you’re absolutely on the right track to tune to 432 and use these pitches for chakra work. I would love to hear the results of your work. Thanks for commenting.

  20. Just to add a side note.
    I’ve seen A-432Hz=C-256Hz, and A-430Hz=C-256Hz, when technically C-256Hz is A-430.54 Hz. So, A-430 or A-431 is closer to C-256 than A-432.

    • Thanks Derek. You are correct. In my experience, I’ve found that exact precision in pitch isn’t necessary for healing results. So if your reference pitch is C=265Hz or A=432Hz, you can expect the same results. Anything within about 2Hz will entrain. Of course I haven’t proven this scientifically.

  21. Mark, your music is so beautiful and healing. I could feel an immediate sense of calmness and peace from the 432hz sample. You are an outstanding musician. Thank-you for an enlightening and interesting article. Nana

  22. Have you investigated and had any experience with C=528 tuning? It is proposed that “528 frequency is the heart of the electromagnetic color spectrum (the rainbow–greenish yellow) and sound spectrum. It has been mathematically proven fundamental to all sacred geometry and cosmology. It is reported to repair damaged DNA. It is C5 on the ancient diatonic scale, equal to A=444Hz (as opposed to standard tuning in A-440). It is the third note, MI tone, of the original Solfeggio scale credited for producing miracles. The heart of the human being must resonate the pure tone 528Hz, if we consider chakra system and the color of 528 associated with the heart chakra. Thus, if LOVE/joy are heart felt, then they would be carried fundamentally by the pure tone 528Hz; that also happens to be the natural frequency the human voice chants when the sound “AH” is chanted by groups. Many conjecture that heart-felt loving intention empowers prayer, and LOVE is the “Universal Healer.”, etc. But there is contraversy, claims and counter claims pro and con regarding A432 vs C528/(A444). Your essay is so valuable in reflecting mathematics along with personal experience that I would really like to find out whatever insights and experience you may have regarding C528 tuning. Can I speak with you by telephone? Thank you. Glenn.

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